Monthly Archives: February 2016

Glossary terms for diabetes mellitus

When talking about diabetes, one needs to understand that being informed and having basic medical education is as important as respecting a healthy diet. In order to keep the disease under control, we must understand the way it works, the way our body reacts in relation to it and what medicine recommends in order to cope with it. Check our glossary terms list in order to gain a better image on type 2 diabetes.

  1.   Acanthosis Nigricans
  2.   Fat acids
  3.   Cardiovascular disease
  4.   Antioxidants
  5.   Aspartame
  6.   Atherosclerosis
  7. Biguanides
  8.   Beta cells
  9.   Diabetic ketoacidosis
  10.  Sodium cyclamate
  11.  Cholesterol
  12.  Gestational diabetes
  13.   Fibers
  14.   Fructose
  15.   HDL (high-density lipoprotein)
  16.   Hyperglycaemia
  17.   Hypoglycaemia
  18.   Body mass index
  19.   Glycemic Index
  20.   LDL (low-density lipoprotein)
  21.   Lipids
  22.   Carbohydrates counting
  23.   Nephropathy
  24.   Diabetic neuropathy
  25.   NIDDM –”the adult’s diabetes” or type 2 diabetes
  26.   Proteins
  27. Proteinuria
  28.   Diabetic retinopathy
  29.   Insulin resistance
  30.   Glycemic load
  31.   Metabolic syndrome
  32.   Sucralose
  33.   A1C Test
  34.   Glucose tolerance
  35.  Saccharine

Which is the treatment for diabetes and what those who suffer from this disease have to do?

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 are very common in the world, with nearly 300 million cases, according to the World Health Organisation. In spite of this fact, the methods of treating diabetes are still unknown for many people.

Differences between type 1 diabetes and type 2:

Type 1 diabetes – it represents about 10% of diabetes cases in Europe and North America. It is characterized by the destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic cells, leading to a deficiency of insulin.

Type 2 diabetes – the factors that may cause this type of diabetes are: a sedentary lifestyle, smoking, increased cholesterol levels, high blood pressure.

Diabetes Type 1 and 2 – the treatment:

Type 1 diabetes – it needs a treatment with insulin injection. Additionally, it is necessary to have a strict diet that involves weighing the food at each meal and calculating the number of carbohydrates.

Type 2 diabetes – it is treated with oral medication for a long period of time and it requires external supply of insulin only when the oral therapy is not effective in controlling blood glucose levels.

Keeping diabetes under control

This step focuses on adapting lifestyle and maintaining blood sugar at a normal level.

The sport is an essential chapter in the treatment of diabetes. For example, the aerobic exercises cause a decrease of blood glucose level and they increase the insulin sensitivity.

The diet is very important too. Although information about the most effective diet are controversial, it was discovered that low glycemic index diet ensures better control of blood sugar levels.

Which are the symptoms of diabetes and how can it be diagnosed?

Because it is found in the whole world, diabetes is considered a “global epidemic” by the World Health Organisation. Although, in the past, it was considered a disease of adults, nowadays it is very common at children, due to increased obesity rates among them, so it is very important that everyone knows the symptoms of diabetes.

Diabetes Symptoms:

  • polyuria (frequent urination);
  • polydipsia (excessive thirst);
  • polyphagia (hunger);
  • weight loss.

Other symptoms of diabetes include: blurred vision, itching, damage to blood vessels, recurrent vaginal infections, tiredness.

How to detect diabetes?

The World Health Organization defines diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) by the increased value of blood glucose at a single determination, accompanied by the symptoms listed above and also by the increased values of any of the following parameters:

  • blood sugar level in the morning (without eating): ≥ 7.0 mmol / l (126 mg / dl)

or

  • as a result of a glucose tolerance test, two hours after the administration of the oral glucose dose – plasma glucose concentration ≥ 11.1 mmol / l (200 mg / dl)